Diagnostic symptoms are based on two components, inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity. Thus, three different clinical presentations emerge: predominantly inattentive, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive, and mixed presentation (APA, 2013). ADHD is estimated to affect 3-7% of school-aged children, to persist into adolescence and adulthood in 50-65% of cases, and to occur three times more frequently in boys than in girls. Furthermore, as practitioners often note, ADHD rarely presents alone.
Associated disorders are the rule rather than the exception (in nearly 80% of cases) (Pliszka, 2015). The clinical features associated with ADHD appear early in development and across a variety of situations. The behaviors that characterize children with ADHD, their inattention, impulsive behaviors, disorganization, high activity levels, and low frustration tolerance, frequently lead to personal, family, school, and social problems. In addition, being a parent of a child with ADHD can be a draining experience. Research indicates that ADHD negatively affects both the child's interactions with his or her family (parents and siblings) and the way parents interact with the child. This day-to-day functional impairment helps to explain why ADHD remains a very common reason for consultation.
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